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水痘

日期 2020-01-06

什么是水痘?
 — 水痘是一种导致皮肤上形成瘙痒性皮疹的感染。它由水痘-带状疱疹病毒引起。这种病毒可在您的体内存留数年,以后可引起一种叫“带状疱疹”的疼痛性皮疹。
水痘在过去比现在更常见。如今,有一种疫苗可帮助人们预防这种感染。该疫苗被称为水痘疫苗。

水痘有何症状? 
— 当您初次患上水痘时,您通常会:
●发热
●感到恶心
●咽痛
●不想进食
在这些症状出现后1天左右,水痘皮疹开始显现。它初始表现为一群群小的、通常瘙痒的红色突起。这些突起通常充满液体,然后会发生破裂。之后,皮疹变干并结痂。数日期间,您身体的不同部位可出现新的突起。皮疹持续1周左右。

水痘如何传播?
 — 如果您未曾患过水痘和未接种水痘疫苗,仅仅是待在被感染者周围即可让您患上水痘。

当我认为自己或孩子有水痘时应联系医护人员吗? 
— 是的。如果您认为自己或孩子有水痘,应联系医护人员。

我或我的孩子需要接受水痘治疗吗?
 — 您可能需要治疗,但您的孩子可能不需要。大多数健康的幼儿能够自行克服水痘而不出现任何问题。另一方面,未曾接种水痘疫苗的年龄较大的儿童和水痘成人患者有时可出现问题。对于这些患者,医护人员常推荐使用药物。它有助于患者更快好转。

水痘可以预防吗?
 — 是的。水痘疫苗可预防这种感染。
几乎所有儿童都应在12-15月龄时注射一剂水痘疫苗,4-6岁时应注射另一剂。每个人都需注射2剂单独的疫苗才能使其发挥最佳效果。极少数情况下,接种了水痘疫苗的人仍可能发生轻度水痘。
未曾患过水痘的大多数成人也应接种该疫苗,尤其是符合下列条件者:
●工作于医疗保健场所或工作中会接触幼儿
●密切接触难以抵抗感染的人群,如癌症患者或HIV感染者
●在院校、监狱或其他有许多人密集居住的地方生活或工作
●将来可能怀孕(针对女性)
水痘疫苗最常见的副作用是注射部位疼痛。

医生推荐将水痘疫苗用于某些人群,包括:
●某些难以抵抗感染的人群
●怀孕或计划不久后怀孕的女性
●曾患过水痘的儿童和成人

如果我曾接近过水痘患者该怎么办? 
— 如果您未曾患过水痘,也未曾接种水痘疫苗,请立即联系医护人员。您可能仍有机会避免生病!水痘疫苗甚至对已接近过该病毒的个体仍可起效。若无法接种该疫苗,还有一些其他方法可预防生病。
 

What is chickenpox? 
— Chickenpox is an infection that causes an itchy rash to form on your skin. It is caused by a virus called varicella-zoster virus. This virus can linger in your body for years and later cause a painful rash called "shingles."
Chickenpox used to be much more common than it is now. Today there is a vaccine  that helps keep people from getting infected. The vaccine is called the varicella vaccine.

What are the symptoms of chickenpox? — When you first get chickenpox, you usually:
●Get a fever
●Feel sick
●Get a sore throat
●Do not feel like eating
About a day after these symptoms start, the chickenpox rash shows up. It starts out as groups of small, usually itchy, red bumps. These bumps usually swell with fluid and then pop. After that, the rash dries up and forms a scab. New bumps can show up on different parts of your body over several days. The rash lasts about a week.

How does chickenpox spread? 
— If you have not had chickenpox or the varicella vaccine, you can catch chickenpox just by being around someone who is infected.

Should I call the doctor or nurse if I think my child or I have chickenpox? 
— Yes. If you think you or your child might have chickenpox, you should call your doctor or nurse.

Will my child or I need treatment for chickenpox? 
— You might need treatment, but your child might not. Most healthy young children get over chickenpox on their own without any problems. On the other hand, older children who have not had the vaccine and adults with chickenpox can sometimes have problems. For them, doctors and nurses often recommend a medicine. It helps people feel better faster.

Can chickenpox be prevented? 
— Yes. The varicella vaccine prevents infection.
Almost all children should get a shot of the varicella vaccine when they are 12 to 15 months old. Then they should get a second shot when they are 4 to 6 years old. Everyone needs 2 separate shots for the vaccine to work best. Rarely, people who get the vaccine might still get mild chickenpox.
Most adults who have never had chickenpox should also get the vaccine, especially if they:
●Work in health care or with small children
●Are in close contact with people who have trouble fighting infections, such as people with cancer or HIV
●Live or work in a college, prison, or other place where a lot of people live close together
●Could get pregnant in the future (for women)
The most common side effect of the vaccine is pain where the shot was given.

Doctors do not recommend the varicella vaccine for some people. This includes:
●Certain people who have trouble fighting infections
●Women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant soon
●Children and adults who have already had chickenpox

What should I do if I was near someone with chickenpox? 
— If you have not had chickenpox or the varicella vaccine, call your doctor or nurse right away. It might still be possible to avoid getting sick! The varicella vaccine can work even if someone has already been near the virus. For people who cannot have the vaccine, there are other options that can help keep them from getting sick.

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