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荨麻疹(基础篇)

日期 2020-01-06

什么是荨麻疹?
荨麻疹是皮肤上凸起的红色风团,通常非常瘙痒。该病可由过敏或其他原因引起。在大多数情况下,荨麻疹会在数小时内出现并消退,但在某些患者中,荨麻疹可反复发作。
一些荨麻疹或血管性水肿患者存在危险的过敏反应。如果您突然出现荨麻疹或浮肿并伴有下述任何症状,请立即就诊
●呼吸困难
●咽喉发紧
●恶心和呕吐
●痛性痉挛或胃痛
●昏倒

我为何会患上荨麻疹?
如果您是第一次出现荨麻疹,您可能对某种事物产生了新的过敏。人们可能因为对以下事物过敏而出现荨麻疹:
●药物,如抗菌药物
●食物,如蛋、坚果、鱼或甲壳类及贝类等
●您触摸过的某种东西,如植物、动物唾液或乳胶
●昆虫叮咬
如果您的荨麻疹由过敏所致,您将需要避开您过敏的任何事物。

荨麻疹也可由以下因素导致:
●感染
●皮肤接触冷空气或冷水
●皮肤受压或振动
●体温改变(如,洗热水澡或锻炼后您平静下来时)
如果您在大多数日子都有荨麻疹且持续超过6周,则可能有慢性荨麻疹。慢性荨麻疹不是由过敏所致。大多数情况下,医生并不清楚慢性荨麻疹的病因是什么。
如果您患有慢性荨麻疹,您可能需要每日用药以控制病情。幸运的是,慢性荨麻疹通常会随时间而消退。

如何治疗荨麻疹?
您可能不需要治疗。即使您未接受治疗,荨麻疹通常也会在数日或数周内消退。如果您首次发生荨麻疹,请咨询医护人员您是否需要治疗。如果您的确需要治疗,首先应查明该荨麻疹是否有诱因。如果有,您需要避开该诱发因素。
为了缓解瘙痒,您可以使用抗组胺药。这些药物也就是人们通常用于治疗过敏的药物。
 

What are hives?
Hives are raised, red patches of skin that are usually very itchy. They can happen because of an allergy or other causes. In most cases, hives come and go within a few hours. But they can show up again and again in some people.
Some people who get hives or angioedema are having a dangerous allergic reaction. See a doctor or nurse right away if you suddenly get hives or get puffy and also have any of these symptoms:
●Trouble breathing
●Tightness in the throat
●Nausea and vomiting
●Cramps or stomach pain
●Passing out

Why did I get hives?
If you just got hives for the first time, you might have a new allergy to something. People can get hives because of allergies to:
●Medicines, such as antibiotics.
●Foods, such as eggs, nuts, fish, or shellfish
●Something they touched, such as a plant, animal saliva, or latex
●Insect stings
If your hives are caused by an allergy, you will need to avoid whatever you are allergic to.

Hives can also be caused by:
●Infections
●Having cold air or water on the skin
●Having something press or vibrate against the skin
●Changes in body temperature (such as when you cool down after a hot shower or a work out)
If you have had hives on most days for more than 6 weeks, you may have "chronic hives." Chronic hives are not caused by an allergy. In most cases, doctors do not know what causes chronic hives.
If you have chronic hives, you will probably need to take medicines every day to control them. Luckily, chronic hives do usually go away with time.

How are hives treated?
You might not need treatment. Hives usually go away in a few days or weeks, even if you do not get treated. If you have hives for the first time, talk to your doctor or nurse about whether or not you need treatment. If you do, the first step will be to figure out if anything triggered the hives. If so, you will need to avoid that trigger.
To relieve itching, you can take medicines called antihistamines. These are the same medicines people usually take for allergies.
 

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