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婴儿黄疸(基础篇)

日期 2020-01-06

什么是黄疸?
“黄疸”一词被医护人员用来描述婴儿的皮肤或眼白部分变黄。黄疸在新生儿中常见,见于婴儿出生后1日或数日内。婴儿通常会在出生后仍在医院时检查黄疸。
当婴儿血液中的胆红素较高时,即可发生黄疸。黄疸提示需要检测婴儿的胆红素水平。
婴儿可由于不同原因而出现高胆红素水平。例如,某些母乳喂养的婴儿可因母乳摄入量不足而发生黄疸。早产儿黄疸发生率也较高。

黄疸有何症状?
黄疸可导致皮肤和眼白变黄。往往始发于面部,但也可扩散至胸部、腹部和双臂。最后可扩散至双腿。
有时,黄疸可能会较严重。重度黄疸患儿可出现膝部以下的小腿皮肤呈橘黄色或黄色。眼白部分可能看上去也呈黄色。重度黄疸患儿还可能:
●难以醒来
●哭声尖锐
●不开心和持续哭闹
●保持身体弯曲或颈部后倾

我该如何判断孩子是否有黄疸?
方法是:用一根手指按压孩子的鼻子或前额,然后抬起手指。如果按压处的皮肤呈黄色,则孩子有黄疸。

我应何时联系医护人员?
如果孩子有以下情况,请联系医护人员:
●黄疸在加重
●出现重度黄疸的症状

有针对黄疸的检查吗?
有。医生可进行体格检查和黄疸检测,例如血液检测或经皮胆红素水平测量。

我自己能做些什么来帮助改善黄疸吗?
能。为帮助改善孩子的黄疸,您可以确保孩子多喝水。如果您给孩子进行母乳喂养,务必要以正确的方式经常哺乳。
如果孩子有以下情况,您可判定孩子的饮入量足够:
●每日尿湿6张或更多的尿布
●大便从深绿色变为黄色
●喂食后似乎比较开心
医生会告诉您孩子是否需要进一步治疗。如果孩子的胆红素水平只是轻微偏高,其黄疸很可能自行好转;但如果胆红素水平非常高或孩子早产,医生可能会建议治疗。

如何治疗黄疸?
最常见的黄疸治疗方式为“光照治疗”,也称“光照疗法”。由医生将孩子置于一种特殊的蓝光下。婴儿接受光照治疗时通常需要裸体或只穿尿布,以便光线能照射其皮肤。孩子接受光照治疗期间,您仍然可以探视和触摸孩子,您还能给孩子母乳喂养。


What is jaundice?
"Jaundice" is the word doctors and nurses use when a baby's skin or white part of the eye turns yellow. Jaundice is common in newborns and can happen within a day or days of a baby's birth. Babies are usually checked for jaundice after they are born, while they are still in the hospital.
Jaundice happens when a baby has high levels of a substance called "bilirubin" in the blood. Jaundice is a sign that testing is needed to check the baby's bilirubin level.
Babies can have high bilirubin levels for different reasons. For example, some babies who breastfeed can get jaundice if they are not getting enough milk. Jaundice is also more common in babies who are born early.

What are the symptoms of jaundice?
Jaundice causes the skin and the white parts of the eyes to turn yellow. It often happens first in the face, but can spread to the chest, belly, and arms. It spreads to the legs last.
Sometimes, jaundice can be severe. A baby with severe jaundice can have orange-yellow skin, or yellow skin below the knee on the lower part of the leg. The "whites" of the eyes might look yellow, too. A baby with severe jaundice might also:
●Be hard to wake up
●Have a high-pitched cry
●Be unhappy and keep crying
●Keep bending his or her body or neck backward

How can I tell if my baby has jaundice?
You can tell if your baby has jaundice by pressing 1 finger on your baby's nose or forehead. Then lift up your finger. If the skin is yellow where you pressed, your baby has jaundice.

When should I call my doctor or nurse?
Call your doctor or nurse if:
●Your baby's jaundice is getting worse
●Your baby has symptoms of severe jaundice

Is there a test for jaundice?
Yes. A doctor can do an exam and test for jaundice. This can be done with a blood test or by measuring the bilirubin level through the skin.

Is there anything I can do on my own to help the jaundice get better?
Yes. To help your baby's jaundice get better, you can make sure your baby drinks enough. If you breastfeed your baby, make sure you breastfeed often and in the right way.
You can tell that your baby is drinking enough if:
●He or she has 6 or more wet diapers a day
●His or her bowel movements change from dark green to yellow
●He or she seems happy after feeding
Your doctor will tell you if your baby needs any more treatment. If your baby's bilirubin level is only a little high, his or her jaundice will most likely get better on its own. But if your baby's bilirubin levels are very high, or if he or she was born early, the doctor will probably suggest treatment.

How is jaundice treated?
The most common treatment for jaundice is "light therapy." This is also called "phototherapy." During light therapy, a doctor puts the baby under a special blue light. Babies who get light therapy are usually naked or wear only a diaper so that the light can shine on their skin. You will still be able to visit and touch your baby while he or she gets light therapy. You will also be able to breastfeed your baby.


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