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中耳炎

日期 2020-01-06

什么是耳部感染? 
— 耳部感染是一种可导致耳部疼痛、发热和听力障碍的疾病。耳部感染在儿童中常见。
耳部感染常在儿童感冒后发生。液体可蓄积于鼓膜后的中耳部分。该液体可发生感染并压迫鼓膜,导致其外凸。这可引起一些症状。
某些儿童中,部分液体在疼痛和感染消退后仍可在耳中存留数周至数月。这种液体可引起通常为轻度和暂时性的听力损失。如果听力损失长时间地持续,有时可导致语言和言语方面的障碍,尤其是对于有发生语言障碍或学习障碍风险的儿童。

耳部感染的症状是什么? 
— 婴幼儿的症状包括:
●发热
●拉扯耳朵
●比平常更烦躁或更不活跃
●没有食欲和食量减少
●呕吐或腹泻
在年龄较大的儿童中,症状往往包括耳部疼痛或暂时性听力损失。

我如何知道孩子是否有耳部感染? 
— 如果您认为您的孩子有耳部感染,应该带其就诊。医生或护士应该能够判断您的孩子是否有耳部感染。他们会询问症状、进行体格检查和观察孩子的耳朵内部。

如何治疗耳部感染? 
— 医生可采用抗生素来治疗耳部感染。对于2岁以下的婴儿,医生通常开具抗生素来治疗耳部感染。对于2岁以上的儿童,医生有时会推迟使用抗生素。
如果满足以下条件,医生可能会建议在尝试抗生素前先观察孩子的症状1-2日:
●孩子总体上是健康的
●疼痛和发热都不严重

我何时应联系医生? 
— 您应该在以下时间联系医生:
●如果您在观察孩子的症状,则观察1-2日后联系。如果疼痛和发热未见好转,医生可能会开具抗生素。
●如果您的孩子在使用抗生素而其症状未见改善或发生恶化,则在治疗2日后联系。
如果您的孩子不足2岁或者有语言或学习障碍,您还应在耳部感染后几个月带孩子就诊。医生或护士会进行耳部检查以确认积液已经消退。您的孩子可能还需要随访性检查以检测其听力。
 
 

What is an ear infection? 
— An ear infection is a condition that can cause pain in the ear, fever, and trouble hearing. Ear infections are common in children.
Ear infections often occur in children after they get a cold. Fluid can build up in the middle part of the ear behind the eardrum. This fluid can become infected and press on the eardrum, causing it to bulge. This causes symptoms.
In some children, some fluid can stay in the ear for weeks to months after the pain and infection have gone away. This fluid can cause hearing loss that is usually mild and temporary. If the hearing loss lasts a long time, it can sometimes lead to problems with language and speech, especially in children who are at risk for problems with language or learning.

What are the symptoms of an ear infection? 
— In infants and young children, the symptoms include:
●Fever
●Pulling on the ear
●Being more fussy or less active than usual
●Having no appetite and not eating as much
●Vomiting or diarrhea
In older children, symptoms often include ear pain or temporary hearing loss.

How do I know if my child has an ear infection? 
— If you think your child has an ear infection, see a doctor or nurse. The doctor or nurse should be able to tell if your child has an ear infection. He or she will ask about symptoms, do an exam, and look in your child's ears.

How are ear infections treated? 
— Doctors can treat ear infections with antibiotics. Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics to treat ear infections in infants younger than 2 years old. For children older than 2, doctors sometimes hold off on antibiotics.
Your child's doctor might suggest watching your child's symptoms for 1 or 2 days before trying antibiotics if:
●Your child is healthy in general
●The pain and fever are not severe

When should I follow up with the doctor?
 — You should call the doctor:
●After 1 to 2 days, if you are watching your child's symptoms. If the pain and fever have not gotten better, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics.
●After 2 days, if your child is taking antibiotics and his or her symptoms have not improved or are worse.
You should also see the doctor or nurse a few months after an ear infection if your child is younger than 2 or has language or learning problems. Your doctor or nurse will do an ear exam to make sure the fluid is gone. Your child might also need follow-up testing to check his or her hearing.
 

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